Many believe the woman to have been the Blessed Virgin Mary and pray to her as such. Pope Pius IX defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception "not so much because of proofs in Scripture or ancient tradition , but due to a profound sensus fidelium and the Magisterium". If the popular praises of the Blessed Virgin Mary be given the careful consideration they deserve, who will dare to doubt that she, who was purer than the angels and at all times pure, was at any moment, even for the briefest instant, not free from every stain of sin? The Roman Catholic tradition has a well-established philosophy for the study of the Immaculate Conception and the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the field of Mariology , with Pontifical schools such as the Marianum specifically devoted to this.
According to Bernard Ullathorne , a 19th-century English Roman Catholic prelate, "the expressions — The Immaculate Conception — The Immaculate Preservation — The Immunity — and Exception from original sin, are all phrases which bear the same signification, and are used equally to express one and the same mystery.
A number of countries are considered to be under the patronage of the Immaculate Conception by pontifical decree. By , the feast of her conception December 8 was widely celebrated in the Byzantine East, under the name of the Conception active of Saint Anne. In the West it was known as the feast of the Conception passive of Mary, and was associated particularly with the Normans , whether these introduced it directly from the East  or took it from English usage. Other theologians defended the expression "Immaculate Conception", pointing out that sanctification could be conferred at the first moment of conception in view of the foreseen merits of Christ, a view held especially by Franciscans.
On February 28, , Pope Sixtus IV , authorized those dioceses that wished to introduce the feast to do so, and introduced it to his own diocese of Rome in ,  with a specially composed Mass and Office of the feast.
THE DOUBTS OF ST. THOMAS
Pope Pius V , while including the feast in the Tridentine Calendar , removed the adjective "Immaculate" and suppressed the existing special Mass for the feast, directing that the Mass for the Nativity of Mary with the word "Nativity" replaced by "Conception" be used instead. For differing reasons, belief in Mary's immaculate conception in the Catholic doctrinal form is not part of the official doctrines of the Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Anglican and Protestant churches.
Contemporary Eastern Orthodox Christians often object to the dogmatic declaration of her immaculate conception as an "over-elaboration" of the faith and because they see it as too closely connected with a particular interpretation of the doctrine of ancestral sin. Gregory Palamas. Though many passages from his works were long known to extol and attribute to Mary a Christlike holiness in her human nature, traditional objections to Palamas' disposition toward the Immaculate Conception typically rely on a poor understanding of his doctrine of "the purification of Mary" at the Annunciation.
Gregory Nazianzen for his understanding of Jesus' purification at His baptism and Mary's at the Annunciation, but Theophanes of Nicaea, Joseph Bryennius, and Gennadios Scholarios all explicitly placed Mary's Conception as the first moment of her all-immaculate participation in the divine energies to such a degree that she was always completely without spot and graced. Mark of Ephesus also fervently defended Mary's title as "prepurified" against the Dominican Manuel Calecas, who was perhaps promoting thomistic Mariology that denied Mary's all-holiness from the first moment of her existence.
In the tradition of Ethiopian Orthodoxy, the Kebra Nagast says:. She [i. While Old Catholics do not reject the Immaculate Conception of Mary, and some of their parishes venerate Mary as immaculately conceived and celebrate the feast of her Immaculate Conception, they do not accept its definition as a dogma , since they reject papal infallibility and, with it, the Pope's authority to define dogma.
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Martin Luther , who was excommunicated in the papal bull Exsurge Domine , stated "Mother Mary, like us, was born in sin of sinful parents, but the Holy Spirit covered her, sanctified and purified her so that this child was born of flesh and blood, but not with sinful flesh and blood. The Holy Spirit permitted the Virgin Mary to remain a true, natural human being of flesh and blood, just as we. However, he warded off sin from her flesh and blood so that she became the mother of a pure child, not poisoned by sin as we are.
For in that moment when she conceived, she was a holy mother filled with the Holy Spirit and her fruit is a holy pure fruit, at once God and truly man, in one person. Later on, Lutheran theologian Martin Chemnitz considered whether Mary was sinless in his Examination of the Council of Trent and concluded that the Decretum Gelasianum condemned certain not only certain Marian and nativity related pseudepigrapha, but also the doctrines they contained.
Most Protestants today reject the doctrine because they do not consider the development of dogmatic theology to be authoritative apart from biblical exegesis , and because the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is not taught in the Bible. Belief in Mary's immaculate conception is not a doctrine within Anglicanism , although it is shared by many Anglo-Catholics.
The report "Mary: Faith and Hope in Christ", by the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission, concluded that the teaching about Mary in the two definitions of the Assumption and the Immaculate Conception can be said to be consonant with the teaching of the Scriptures and the ancient common traditions. Other than Anglo-Catholics, most Anglicans reject the doctrine that Mary was sinless and conceived without original sin , often citing that it is not within the Holy Scripture and is against the redemptive role and purpose of Jesus Christ merited for all human beings.
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An example is the antiphon that begins: " Tota pulchra es, Maria, et macula originalis non est in te " "You are all beautiful, Mary, and the original stain [of sin] is not in you. You are all beautiful, Mary, and the original stain [of sin] is not in you. You are the glory of Jerusalem, you are the joy of Israel, you give honour to our people.
You are all beautiful, Mary. Other prayers honouring Mary's immaculate conception are in use outside the formal liturgy. Ave Maris Stella is the vesper hymn of the feast of the Immaculate Conception. During the Medieval period, the conception of Mary was symbolically depicted in the Meeting at the Golden Gate and was an early scene in the many cycles of the Life of the Virgin , as a counterpart of the Annunciation showing the conception of Jesus.
To some medieval viewers, the kiss was a literal representation of the moment of Mary's conception, while for others it was a symbolic representation. The 14th and 15th centuries were the highpoint of these depictions. Gradually more allegorical depictions of the Immaculate Conception, featuring an adult Mary, replaced this scene in representing the doctrine.
The extension of the feast of the Immaculate Conception to the entire Latin Church reduced the likelihood of controversy for the artist or patron in depicting an image, so that emblems depicting The Immaculate Conception began to appear. Many artists in the 15th century faced the problem of how to depict an abstract idea such as the Immaculate Conception, and the problem was not fully solved for years.
The Italian Renaissance artist Piero di Cosimo was among those artists who tried new solutions , but none of these became generally adopted so that the subject matter would be immediately recognisable to the faithful.
The popularity of this particular representation of The Immaculate Conception spread across the rest of Europe, and has since remained the best known artistic depiction of the concept: in a heavenly realm, moments after her creation, the spirit of Mary in the form of a young woman looks up in awe at or bows her head to God. The moon is under her feet and a halo of twelve stars surround her head, possibly a reference to "a woman clothed with the sun" from Revelation —2.
Additional imagery may include clouds, a golden light, and putti. In some paintings the putti are holding lilies and roses , flowers often associated with Mary. Rubens , Immaculate Conception , — Murillo , Immaculate Conception , Juan Antonio Escalante , 17th century. Santa Maria degli Angeli , Rome. Tiepolo , Church of Saint Pascual, Aranjuez , Statue, Porto Alegre , Brazil , 19th century. Our Lady of Aparecida , Brasilia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Immaculate Conception disambiguation.
Catholic doctrine that Mary was conceived free from original sin. For other uses, see Immacolata disambiguation , Immaculata disambiguation , Immaculate disambiguation , and Mary Immaculate disambiguation. Virgo by Josef Moroder-Lusenberg. Hymns to Mary. Devotional practices.
The Doubts of St. Thomas Lt. Santommaso by Marchese & Emanuel C.
Movements and societies. Key Marian feast days. Further information: Mary in Islam. Main article: Patronages of the Immaculate Conception. Main article: Roman Catholic Marian art. Carlo Maratta , Caxias do Sul museum, Brazil. Palmi , Immaculate Conception , Nicaragua , Immaculate Conception , Play media. Catholicism portal. Citation needs more info. Probably is referring to part of "Enchiridion symbolorum et definitionum, quae de rebus fidei et morum a conciliis oecumenicis et summis pontificibus emanarunt" by Heinrich Denzinger, Wurzburg:Stahel, published in Latin, or a later edition.
Papal Encyclicals Online. Retrieved March 9, Retrieved May 25, In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on July 24, Even if human nature remained in that integrity in which it was formed, it would in no way save itself without the help of its Creator; therefore, since without the grace of God it cannot guard the health which it received, how without the grace of God will it be able to recover what it has lost?
Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 23, Her body was formed in the womb of the mother, and the father had the usual share in its formation. The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents. The Catholicism Answer Book. Orthodoxy did not follow the path of Roman Catholicism in moving towards a recognition of her Immaculate Conception".